January 11, 2017
Treatment depends on the cause of hypogonadism and the possibility of infertility.
1. Testosterone replacement therapy
For hypogonadism caused by testicular failure, doctors can use hormone replacement. They can restore sexual function, strengthen muscles and prevent bone loss. In addition patients treated with testosterone benefit from increased energy, sexual desire and overall wellness.
If a pituitary problem is due to the administration of pituitary hormones may stimulate the production of sperm and restore fertility. Testosterone replacement therapy may be used if fertility is not a problem. A pituitary tumor may require surgical removal, medication, radiation and hormone replacement therapy for others.
2. Assisted Reproduction
Although there is often an effective treatment to restore fertility in men with primary hypogonadism, assisted reproduction techniques may be helpful. This technology encompasses a variety of techniques designed to help couples who have been unsuccessful in conceiving children (testosteron booster).
1. Substitution therapy with testosterone
In boys this therapy can stimulate puberty and the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle mass, beard and pubic hair growth, increased penis. Pituitary hormones can be used to stimulate the growth of the testes. A lower starting dose of testosterone increased gradually, can help avoid side effects.
2. Types of testosterone replacement therapy
There are several methods of the administration of testosterone. Choosing a specific type of therapy depends on the preference for a particular route of administration, side effects and cost.
These methods are:
– Injection: Testosterone injections are safe and effective. Injections are administered intramuscularly every two weeks. Symptoms may come and go in the interval between doses. The patient or a family member can learn to administer the injections at home; or they can be done by a nurse.
– Patch: The patch contains testosterone which is applied every evening on the back, abdomen, upper arm or thigh. Application site will be different every time to keep an interval of seven days between applications on the same spot, thus avoiding local reactions at the patch.
– Gel: It can be applied on skin by massaging the abdomen, upper arm and shoulder. As the gel dries, testosterone is absorbed through the skin. Testosterone replacement therapy by applying the gel appears to have fewer adverse reactions than skin patch application. It is recommended that the patient should not bath or shower for a few hours after applying the gel to be sure was absorbed. A potential side effect of the gel is the possibility of transferring partner medication. This can be prevented by avoiding contact skin to skin until the gel is dry or cover the area after applying the gel.
– Gum and the cheek (oral cavity): STRI’s, a small amount of putty-like substance releases testosterone through superior vestibular region, an area where the gums join the upper lip (mouth). This product sticks to the gum rapidly and in contact with saliva softens and takes the consistency of a gel, allowing the testosterone to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Side effects can include irritation of the gums (gingivitis), pain, bitterness or headaches.
– Oral: Oral testosterone therapy is not spread the word term. This type of management can cause liver disease, may increase cholesterol levels and the risk for heart disease.
Testosterone replacement therapy
Understanding Low Testosterone
January 10, 2017
A testosterone level in the blood test can indicate if the patient has signs and symptoms of hypogonadism. Early detection of the disease in boys can prevent problems caused by delayed puberty. Early diagnosis and treatment in men offer better protection against osteoporosis and other diseases associated with hypogonadism.
Doctors diagnose the signs and symptoms of hypogonadism present on serum testosterone levels. Since testosterone levels vary and they are generally higher in the morning, usually taking blood test is done in the morning. If tests confirm low levels of testosterone, further testing will determine the underlying cause: testicular or pituitary.
Depending on the specific symptoms and signs, additional tests may show cause (testosteron booster).
These tests may include:
– Hormone testing;
– Semen analysis (sperm counts);
– Pituitary imaging;
– Genetic tests;
– Testicular biopsy.
Testosterone dosage is important in the treatment of hypogonadism, it helps your doctor determine the right dose of medication, both initial and maintenance.
Hypogonadism complications vary depending on the age at which they occur – in the womb, at puberty or adulthood.
1. During fetal development: If it occurs during this period, the child may be born with genital ambiguity or abnormal genitalia.
2. At puberty: If they develop before puberty may occur absence of hairiness body and slow growth of the penis and testicles.
3. Adulthood: Infertility, erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, fatigue, muscle wasting or muscle weakness, enlarged breasts volume (gynecomastia), hairiness body thinning and osteoporosis are possible complications of hypogonadism in adults.
1. Preventing osteoporosis
If hypogonadism occurs in adults, changes in lifestyle and diet are necessary to prevent osteoporosis. Regular exercise and take calcium and vitamin D to maintain bone meal are important measures to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. The recommended dose of calcium is 1000 mg per day in men aged under 65 and 1,500 mg per day in men over 65 years. All patients should take between 400 and 800 IU of vitamin D per day.
2. Education regarding erectile dysfunction and infertility
These conditions caused by hypogonadism can cause psychological and relational problems.
3. Reduce stress
The patient should discuss with your doctor about how they could reduce anxiety and stress that accompany these disorders. Many men benefit from psychological counseling or family. Support groups can help patients with hypogonadism and other conditions, or in similar situations and who face some similar attempts. Also, it is important for the rest of the family to understand what hypogonadism is and how it can affect a teenager or adult.
4. Adapting to the new situation
Teens with hypogonadism may feel they cannot adapt in the same age group. Testosterone replacement therapy can trigger puberty. When given time to adapt to physical changes and new emotions, it can be an effective treatment.
Precocious Puberty – What Causes It?
December 31, 2016
Precocious Puberty refers to the physical and hormonal the first signs of pubertal development at an earlier age than normal. Over time, early puberty in girls has been considered for about 8 years, but recent studies in recent years show that the transition to pubertal development occurs in 6-8 years among girls and 9 years among boys.
Early puberty can cause a range of problems, from short stature in adulthood, up to emotional stress undergone by the child.
Types of Precocious Puberty
Puberty normally begins between the ages 8-13 years old in girls and in boys, between 9-14 years. Doctors diagnose early puberty when this natural process begins before the minimum age for early maturing body considered normal. Precocious puberty occurs in 1 in 5,000 children.
There are two main types of precocious puberty
– Central precocious puberty. This is the most common type of early puberty, physiological processes through which the child passes are identical to those of normal puberty, except that they appear earlier. The pituitary gland starts to produce hormones, called gonadotropins, which are designed to stimulate the testes and ovaries to produce other hormones – testosterone and estrogen.
– Peripheral precocious puberty – also called pseudo-precocious puberty. In this case, estrogen and testosterone trigger the pubertal development of the symptoms, without the pituitary gland and the brain being involved. Usually, there is a local problem in the ovaries, testes, adrenal or thyroid selvedge, causing different problems, like lower testosterone levels, in boys, for example.
Underlying causes triggering puberty at young ages vary by type of early puberty goes through the child.
If central precocious puberty occurs, there is no identifiable cause. Even if the body processes begin early sexual maturation, they usually develop normally, without there being a problem of medical nature to initiate them. In rare cases, central precocious puberty causes can be:
– Brain or spine tumor;
– A brain defect present at birth, as well as excessive accumulation of fluid (hydrocephalus) or a benigne tumor;
– Irradiating the brain or spinal cord;
– Damage to the brain or spinal cord;
– McCune-Albrightv syndrome (causing hormonal disorders);
– Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (group of hereditary disorders in which the adrenal gland does not produce hormones in the way it should);
– Hypothyroidism (thyroid gland is hypoactive);
If peripheral precocious puberty occurs, less common than central precocious puberty, because of the outbreak is abnormal secretion of estrogen or testosterone amid disorder in the ovaries, testes, adrenal or pituitary glands. In both girls and guys, these problems can lead to early onset of puberty
– A tumor in the adrenal glands or the pituitary gland, which secretes estrogen or testosterone;
– McCune-Albright syndrome, a rare disorder that affects the skin, bones and hormonal balance;
– Exposure to external sources of estrogen and testosterone;
In girls, peripheral precocious puberty can be associated with ovarian cysts and ovarian tumors.
In boys, the same problem may be caused by
– Producing tumor cells or the sperm producing testosterone;
– A genetic mutation very rare, familial sexual precocity called gonadotropin-independent (is caused by a defective gene, which causes secretion of testosterone between the ages of 1 and 4 years);
Male Hypogonadism Causes and Risk Factors
December 31, 2016
Male Hypogonadism Causes and Risk Factors
Male hypogonadism means the testicles do not produce enough testosterone. There are two main types of hypogonadism:
This type of hypogonadism – also known as primary testicular failure – originates in a condition of the testicles.
This type of hypogonadism indicates a problem with the hypothalamus (a part of the brain) or pituitary gland (pituitary) – which coordinates testicular testosterone production. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which signals the pituitary gland to produce follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Luteinizing hormone signals the testicles to produce testosterone.
Either of the two types of hypogonadism may be caused by characteristics inherited (congenital) or disturbances that occurred later in life, such as injuries or infections (acquired).
Risk factors for hypogonadism include:
– Kallamann syndrome;
– Unlowered testicles into the scrotum in young children;
– Mumps infection (mumps) affecting the testes;
– Testicular injuries;
– Tumors of the pituitary or testicular tumors;
– HIV AIDS;
– Klinefelter Syndrome;
– Medical history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Hypogonadism can be inherited. The doctor should be informed about a possible presence of diseases mentioned above in the patient’s family history.
See your doctor immediately at the first signs of male hypogonadism. Determining the cause of hypogonadism is an important step in getting appropriate treatment.
It may need the consult of an endocrinologist, a doctor who specializes in diseases of the endocrine glands (glands of internal secretion). If your family doctor suspected presence of such ailments, they have the ability to send patients to an endocrinologist.
Remember more analyses will be made in order to determine if you suffer from hypogonadism, what are the causes and, most important, the implications in your medical well-being and overall lifestyle. Sometimes, even if you believe hormone replacement therapy is the best solution, your endocrinologist only can determine that.